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Knights banneret were also granted nonhereditary supporters, but no such knight has been created since the time of Charles I. Supporters may also be granted to corporations which have a Royal charter. In Canada, Companions of the Order of Canada, people granted the style "the Right Honourable", and corporations are granted the use of supporters on their coats of arms. Further, on his retirement from office as Chief Herald, Robert Watt was granted supporters as an honour.

On the European continent, there are often fewer restrictions on the use of supporters. The arms of the Kingdom of Spain with the Pillars of Hercules as supporters reproduced here by courtesy of Wikipedia. A hatchment is a distinctive rendering of a dead person's arms, represented on a lozenge not lozenge shaped arms, but arms painted within a lozenge shaped frame. This feature is enough to indicate that the rendering is a funeral hatchment, but there are often other clues. The crest may be replaced by a skull and the motto by the word "Resurgam" I shall arise.

The background is black or in some cases black and white - in some countries the pattern of black and white conveys information about whether the man is dead, or the woman is dead, or both are dead, which can get complicated when there have been remarriages.. Sometimes symbols of time, such as a sand-timer or arrows, may be shown on the background. Hatchments have now largely fallen into disuse, but many hatchments from former times remain in parish churches, especially in England.

The practice developed in the early 17th century from the older custom of carrying an heraldic shield before the coffin of the deceased, then leaving it for display in the church. In medieval times, helmets and shields were sometimes deposited in churches and a few examples may still be seen in English parish churches. At the universities of Oxford and Cambridge it was usual to hang the hatchment of a deceased head of a house over the entrance to his lodge or residence. There is a fine collection of such hatchments at All Souls College in Oxford - the Wardens' arms each being impaled with the arms of the college.

Colours and military or naval emblems are sometimes placed behind the arms of military or naval officers. The family motto is replaced by the word Resurgam "I shal rise again" - an affirmation of Christian belief. The black and white background conveys additional information - the whitebackground to the sinister side of the arms tells us that the armiger's wife survived him.

This hatchment is a little different - there is no crest, torse or lambrequin - just some decoration and a cherub. The arms represented on a lozenge, so we can assume that these the arms of the first wife. To marshal two or more coats of arms is to combine them in one shield, to express inheritance, claims to property, or the occupation of an office. This can be done in a number of ways.

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Dimidiation combines the Dexter half of one coat with the sinister half of another. This method was not satisfactory for a number of reasons - it can create ambiguity between, for example, a bend and a chevron since they are identical in one half of the shield. Another problem is the creation of odd combinations - as for example in the arms of Great Yarmouth shown on the right. Using impalement the field is divided per pale and one whole coat of arms is placed in each half.

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Impalement replaced the earlier dimidiation. By convention certain borders are dimidiated even when impalement is used - see for example the arms of Isabella of Scotland shown on the right, where the Scottish double tressure is dimidiated. In German heraldry, animate charges in combined coats usually turn to face the centre of the composition. A more versatile method is quartering, division of the field by both Vertical and horizontal lines. This practice originated in Spain after the 13th century. As the name implies, the usual number of divisions is four, but the principle has been extended to very large numbers of "quarters".

Quarters are numbered from the Dexter chief the corner nearest to the right shoulder of a man standing behind the shield , proceeding across the top row, and then across the next row and so on. When three coats are quartered, the first is repeated as the fourth; when only two coats are quartered, the second is also repeated as the third. The quarters of a personal coat of arms correspond to the ancestors from whom the bearer has inherited arms, normally in the same sequence as if the pedigree were laid out with the father's father's The Scottish and Spanish traditions resist allowing more than four quarters, preferring to subdivide one or more "grand quarters" into sub-quarters as needed.

A fourth mode of marshalling is with an inescutcheon or escutcheon, a small shield placed in front of the main shield. The Prince of Wales bears the quartered arms of Wales in escutcheon on his own quartered arms, as shown on the left.

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In Britain this is most often an "escutcheon of pretence" indicating, in the arms of a married couple, that the wife is an heraldic heiress that is, she inherits a coat of arms because she has no brothers. In continental Europe an inescutcheon sometimes called a "heart shield" usually carries the ancestral arms of a monarch or noble whose domains are represented by the quarters of the main shield. On the right are the Royal Arms of the UK Over the basic arms is an escutcheon of pretence representing the Kingdom of Hanover This escutcheon was dropped on the accession of Queen Victoria because, under Salic Law, she did not inherit the Kingdom of Hanover.

Impaled arms of Isabella of Scotland impaling Brittany and Scotland reproduced here by courtesy of Wikipedia. The Quartered arms of Trotter, with separate crests facing inwards, each crest with its own mantling. The quartered Arms of the United Kingdom. Cadency is any systematic way of distinguishing similar coats of arms belonging to members of the same family.

Cadency is necessary in heraldic systems in which a given design may be owned by only one person at once. Because heraldic designs may be inherited, the arms of members of a family will usually be similar to the arms used by its oldest surviving member called the "plain coat". They are formed by adding marks called brisures, similar to charges but smaller. Brisures are generally exempt from the rule of tincture.

In heraldry's early period, uniqueness of arms was obtained by a wide variety of devices, including change of tincture and addition of an ordinary. Systematic cadency schemes were later developed in England and Scotland. While in England they are voluntary and not always observed , in Scotland they are enforced through the process of matriculation. The English system of cadency involves the addition of these brisures to the plain coat:. Daughters have no special brisures, and use their father's arms on a lozenge. This is because English heraldry has no requirement that women's arms be unique.

In England, arms are generally the property of their owner from birth - subject to the use of the appropriate mark of cadency.


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In other words, it is not necessary to wait for the death of the previous generation before arms are inherited. The eldest son of an eldest son uses a label of five points.


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Other grandchildren combine the brisure of their father with the relevant brisure of their own, which would in a short number of generations lead to confusion because it allows an uncle and nephew to have the same cadency mark and complexity because of an accumulation of cadency marks to show, for example, the fifth son of a third son of a second son. However, in practice cadency marks are not much used in England and, even when they are, it is rare to see more than one or, at most, two of them on a coat of arms. Although textbooks on heraldry agree on the English system of cadency set out above, most heraldic examples ignore cadency marks altogether.

Arms of the Eldest Son of Robert Courtney note the blue label in the chief of the shield. Arms of the second son of Robert Courtney note the gold crescent in the centre of the shield. Arms of the third son of Robert Courtney note the gold mullet in the centre of the shield. Branches of the same family often retain common features, the oldest branch retaining the simplest form. For example the modern arms of Courtney retain the essential features of the arms of Courtenay, Counts of Boulogne.

The system is very different in Scotland, where every male user of a coat of arms must have a personal variation, appropriate to that person's position in their family, approved or "matriculated" by the Lord Lyon the heraldic authority for Scotland. This means that in Scotland no two men can ever simultaneously bear the same arms, even by accident, if they have submitted their position to the Scottish heraldic authorities which, in practice, in Scotland as in England, not all do.

To this extent, the law of arms is stricter in Scotland than in England. Scotland, like England, uses the label of three points for the eldest son and a label of five points for the eldest son of the eldest son, and allows the label to be removed as the bearer of the plain coat dies and the eldest son succeeds. In Scotland unlike England the label may be borne by the next male heir to the plain coat even if this is not the son of the bearer of the plain coat for example, if it is his nephew.

For cadets other than immediate heirs, Scottish cadency uses a complex and versatile system, applying different kinds of changes in each generation. First, a bordure is added in a different tincture for each brother.

In subsequent generations the bordure may be divided in two tinctures; the edge of the bordure, or of an ordinary in the base coat, may be changed from straight to indented, engrailed or invected; small charges may be added. These variations allow the family tree to be expressed clearly and unambiguously.

Illustrated below is a system advocated by Mr Stodart and known as the Stodart system. Because of the Scottish clan system, only one bearer of any given surname may bear plain arms. Other armigerous persons of the same family have arms derived from the same plain coat, though if kinship cannot be established they must be differenced in a way other than the cadency system mentioned above. Canadian cadency generally follows the English system.

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However, women bear their arms on a shield. Since a coat of arms must be unique regardless of the bearer's gender, Canada has developed a series of brisures for daughters. These brisures are unique to Canada.

There are no actual "rules" for members of the Royal Family, because they are theoretically decided ad hoc by the sovereign. In practice, however, a number of traditions have developed. At birth, members of the Royal Family have no arms. At some point during their lives, generally at the age of eighteen, they may be granted arms of their own. These will always be the arms of dominion of the Sovereign with a label Argent for difference; the label may have three or five points.